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Multiplying the 120 years of the cycle by the number of intercalations made should thus yield the full number of years in which the calendar was in use, and simple subtraction should produce the date on which the calendar was introduced. Official documents and publications were dated ac­cording to the new calendar.

In this way the first month of the intercalated calendar corresponded to the second month of the civil calendar; after another 120 years the first month corresponded to the third month in the civil calendar and so on until the eighth addition, after which intercalation was no longer practiced. The month names of the Persian solar Hejrī calendar were retained without change.

Šāpūr (399-420) two extra months were inserted, one to correct the cumulative lag, the other to forestall future errors. 759-72) Hartner, noted that the shorter, 116-year cycle of intercalations would accord well (at the beginning dates) with the sidereal year (365.25636 days; multiplying Bīrūnī’s figures yields 365.2586 days), and, from comparisons with later dates and with the Egyptian (Sōthic) calendar, arrived at the date 503 for the introduction of the Zoroastrian calendar. 694-703/1295-1304), but it did not remain in use for long; contemporary historians do not agree on the corresponding lunar Hejrī date (see Abdollahy, 1977, pp. Consequently, two features of the lunar Hejrī calendar were incorporated into it: the starting point, which was directly connected with the Prophet of Islam, and the lunar months, which, according to Koranic teaching, could not be changed.

55-56), on the other hand, declared that in the time of Yazdegerd b. The late Avestan (probably Sasanian) text ; see Table 24), the origins of which are problematic (Taqizadeh, 1939, pp. A new starting point was adopted in the reign of Ḡāzān Khan (r. Dating by the , continued in official Il-khanid circles during the reign of Ḡāzān’s successors Ūljāytū (Öljeitü, 703-17/1304-17) and Abū Saʿīd (717-36/1317-35) but was not in general use (see Sayılı, pp. Even after the duodecennial animal cycle became widely accepted, use of the lunar months determined by direct observation was not given up.

As Christian dates are given in current years, the elapsed years must be increased by one. 1699, ten days must be added to the Julian date, for 1700-99 inclusive eleven days, for 1800-99 inclusive twelve days, and for 1900-2099 inclusive thirteen days.) When the highest possible number in the columns of elapsed days in the Julian year is subtracted from the remainder (i.e., the number of days in the current year), the residue is the day of the month corresponding to that highest possible number. The names of the months in the Cappadocian calendar Table 26. Supplementary material (dialect forms) is to be found in Lentz, pp.

The Zoroastrian calendar consisted of twelve months of thirty days each (cf. 175-81, 223-59; Table 22, Table 23), Avestan sources give the names of all thirty days but of only seven of the twelve months (cf. The fraction 31/128 means that each year contains 6, 5; 14, 32 days, close to the previous 6, 5; 14, 33 days. The method of converting dates traditionally given in astronomical handbooks is to reckon the number of days between the date in question and the beginning of the calendar in which it appears and then to translate this figure into the comparable interval in the second calendar (Abdollahy, 1987, pp. For example, to convert a lunar Hejrī date to the corresponding date in the Julian calendar (in use before the Gregorian reform on 16 Ramażān 990 = 22 Mehr 961 Š./4 October 1582), the elapsed complete lunar Hejrī years are multiplied by 354 11/30 (the average number of days in a lunar year) and the elapsed days of the date year (see Table 38) are added; the resulting total of elapsed days is added to the number of days between the beginnings of the two calendars. Pre-Islamic Calendars Although evidence of calendrical traditions in Iran can be traced back to the 2nd millennium B. The Old Persian names of the remaining four are known in Elamite transcription, but only two—the eight and the eleventh—have re­ceived probable etymologies (for the remaining two see Hinz, pp. The old Sino-Turkish animal cycle of twelve solar years was commonly used in Kabul at the beginning of the 14th/20th century and still is in remote parts of the country such as Hazārajāt (Schurmann, p. Older people still remember in which animal year they were born, and this system of time-reckoning (. C., before the lifetime of Zoroaster (see discussion of the Zoroas­trian calendar below), the earliest calendar that is fully preserved dates from the Achaemenid period. The Old Persian calendar was lunisolar, like that of the Babylonians, with twelve months of thirty days each; the days were numbered but not named (with the exception of the last day of the month, Jiyamna “the decreasing one(? 68-69): *Vrkazana “(month) of wolf killing,” Elamite Mar-ka-ca-na° (DB 3.88; Kent, - “terrible”; cf. The vague Zoroas­trian year (see i, above) was subject to varying correc­tions by the Zoroastrian communities in Iran and India. 296 table), which were shown to be incorrect after A. A list of Old Persian month names (only partial in Old Persian script but complete in Elamite script) is thus available for com­parison with the lists in Elamite and Babylonian (see Table 20). The testimony of Quintus Curtius Rufus (3.3.10) (The magi were followed by three hundred and sixty-five young men clad in purple robes, equal in number to the days of a whole year; for the Persians also divided the year into that number of days), referring to the year 333 B. Another problem is posed by the system of interca­lation used in the Achaemenid calendar, for which no direct and explicit testimony survives. 74) maintains that the Old Persian calendar followed the same system of intercalation as the Babylonian calendar. Fruin, “Der Anfang des susischen Jahres I: Zur Zeit der elamitischen Könige; II: Zur Zeit der persischen Könige,” . The Arsacid kings fol­lowed the same practice, but it appears from material discovered at Nisa (2nd-1st century B. a.d.) that the Zoroastrian solar calendar (see below) was also used. The names of the days are only partly attested (see Boyce, pp. For dates in documents using the Seleucid calendar, see dating. Reconstruction of a calendrical tradition from before the time of Zoroaster is based on hypothetical derivations from Avestan texts and on comparison with the Vedic tradition (see Taqizadeh, 1938, pp. Traces of a synodical cycle have also been transmitted in the Avesta, however (cf. In 1336 Š./1957 the number of days was fixed at 31 days in each of the first six months, 30 each in the next five, and 29 in the last (30 in leap years). In 1906 an attempt was made to resolve the controversy with the adoption of a new calendar similar to the Gregorian. Names of the years in the Central Asian animal cycle (1) Genitive singular. For these sources and the opinion that in Arabia the two months originally fell in a dry period of late spring, see Lane, s.v. 121-45) was able to specify the three missing names from newly discovered Akkadian and Elamite sources. Bickerman has shown, the Achaemenids used the lunisolar calendar at least until 459 B. Between 471 and 401 the Babylonian calendar was still used in Aramaic documents issued by the Persian administration (almost all found at the colony of Elephantine in Egypt). The precise differences between a supposed Old Avestan and a Later Avestan calendar seem ambiguous, however, given that both have been reconstructed on the basis of the same Avestan and Pahlavi sources. 113-49) the earliest calendar may originally have been lunar and sidereal, consisting of thirteen months of twenty-seven days (27.3 x 13 = 354.9 days), with Miθra at the midpoint of each. Before 1336 Š./1957 the number of days in most months ranged from 29 to 32 according to the year. 190) claimed in fact that it was the Iranian community that was a month behind because it had not intercalated one month after each cycle of 120 years. Names of the six-fold Khotanese calendar divisions Table 33. (2) According to some medieval sources, the name Jomādā was derived from “freezing of water” and the two months of that name originally fell in winter, an interpretation that would seem reasonable in more northern climates. Jalālī month names (1) Garmāfazāy in Sanjar Kamālī, fol. “month of increasing days,” may be interpreted as the month in which the day becomes longer than the night.

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The five days of the epact took their names from the five Gathas, which have been transmitted with several variants in the Zoroastrian literature (cf. 225-34, 279-95) is corrobo­rated by a report in began 468 solar years before the beginning (1 Far­vardīn) of the Jalālī era (see below), which fell on 9 Ramażān 471/15 March 1079 (see also Fārsī, fol. If 468 years of 365 days are subtracted from the beginning of the Jalālī era, the result is a.d. Further confir­mation is to be found in the dates given by Moḥammad b. , which he wrote there, is devoted to the calendar used by the Mongols, the duodecennial animal cycle (see also i above), in which the years are named after each of twelve animals in turn.